University of agribusiness and rural development, UARD Jubilee International Scientific Conference

Font Size: 
Frequency of Prophylactic Gynecological Examinations Among Bulgarian Women
Valentin Irmov, Petar Petrov

Last modified: 2018-02-12


Most of the respondents have conducted two prophylactic examinations of the female reproductive system over the last five years. In Bulgarians, the number of three and more prophylactic examinations in recent years is the highest. For the age group of 25 years, the group performing more than three prophylactic gynecological examinations for the past five years is the lowest. By increasing the education of the examined women the number and the relative share of the women who regularly carry out prophylactic gynecological examinations increase. The highest proportion of women visited with a prophylactic gynecologist over three times during the last five years is among the most educated women - the university graduates. The most common reason for examining patients with a gynecologist is usually not prevention but objective symptoms due to a condition or illness that has already occurred.


prophylactic examinations, health culture, education


  1. Alvarez, EA, Brady WE, Walker JL, et al. Phase II trial of combination bevacizumab and temsirolimus in the treatment of recurrent or persistent endometrial carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol. 2013 Apr;129(1):22-7. Epub 2012 Dec 20.
  2. Bray, F., et al. Endometrial cancer incidence trends in Europe: underlying determinants and prospects for prevention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2005. 14(5): p. 1132-[26]Beining RM, Dennis LK, Smith EM, Dokras A. Meta-analysis of intrauterine device use and risk of endometrial cancer. Ann Epidemiol. 2008;18:492-499.
  3. Cardenes, HR, Look K, Michael H, Cerezo L. Endometrium. In: Halperin EC, Perez CA,
  4. Brady, LW, eds. Perez and Brady's Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2008: 1610-1628.
  5. Cardenes, HR, Look K, Michael H, Cerezo L. Endometrium. In: Halperin EC, Perez CA,
  6. Brady LW, eds. Perez and Brady's Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2008: 1610-1628.
  7. Dalvi TB, Canchola AJ, Horn-Ross PL. Dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet, and endometrial cancer risk. Cancer causes & control: CCC. Nov 2007;18(9):957-966.
  8. European age-standardised rates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. 2011, using data from GLOBOCAN 2008, v1.2, IARC.
  9. Jick H, Walker AM, Rothman KJ. The epidemic of endometrial cancer: a commentary. Am J Public Health. 1980 Mar;70(3):264-7.
  10. Nout RA, Smit VT, Putter H, et al. Vaginal brachytherapy versus pelvic external beam radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer of high-intermediate risk (PORTEC-2): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial. Lancet. 2010 Mar 6;375(9717):816-23.
  11. Nussler NC, Reinbacher K, Shanny N, et al. Sex-specific differences in the expression levels of estrogen receptor subtypes in coloectal cancer. Gend Med. 2008 Sep;5(3):209-17.
  12. Odagiri T, Watari H, Hosaka M, Mitamura T, Konno Y, Kato T. Sakuragi N. Multivariate survival analysis of the patients with recurrent endometrial cancer. J Gynecol Oncol. Mar 31 2011;22(1):3-8.
  13. Ohno S, Sumiyoshi Y, Hashine K, Shirato A, Kyo S, Inoue M. Phase I Clinical Study of the Dietary Supplement, Agaricus blazei Murill, in Cancer Patients in Remission. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCAM. 2011;2011:192381.
  14. Ollberding NJ, Lim U, Wilkens LR, Setiawan VW, Shvetsov YB, Henderson BE. Goodman MT. Legume, soy, tofu, and isoflavone intake and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women in the multiethnic cohort study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Jan 4 2012;104(1):67-76.
  15. Punnonen R, Mattila J, Kuoppala T, Koivula T. DNA ploidy, cell proliferation and steroid hormone receptors in endometrial hyperplasia and early adenocarcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1993;119(7):426-429.
  16. Purdie DM, Green AC. Epidemiology of endometrial cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. Jun 2001;15(3):341-354.
  17. Rahaman J and Cohen CJ. Gynecologic Sarcomas. In Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, et al., editors. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. 6h Edition. Chapter 120. Hamilton (ON): BC 18.Decker; 2003.
  18. Rahbari NN, Bork U, Kircher A, Nimitz T, Schölch S, Kahlert C, Schmidt T, Steinert G, 20.Ulrich AB, Reissfelder C, Büchler MW, Koch M, Weitz J. Compartmental differences of circulating tumor cells in colorectal cancer.Ann Surg Oncol. 2012 Jul;19(7):2195-202.
  19. Colgan, R и др. Diagnosis and treatment of acute pyelonephritis in women.. // American family physician 84 (5). 2011-09-01. с. 519 – 26.

Full Text: PDF