University of agribusiness and rural development, Fiscal policy, globalization and economic growth: sustainable development challenges and perspectives

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Buket Karaturhan, Berna Türkekul

Last modified: 2020-02-27


Gender inequality is one of the most important debates. In fact, “gender” has started to be considered as an important variable when it comes to the development and development assessments between countries. It is accepted that gender inequality is the key to rational progress and sustainable development. With women comprising almost 50% of the population, gender inequality carries one of the highest priorities among all other inequalities.

Therefore, the aim of this study; is to analyze comparatively Turkey and the EU countries using Gender Inequality Index, the Gender-related Development Index and Gender Empowerment Index prepared by international organizations (UNDP, UN, UNICEF, etc.

Gender Inequality Index (GII) is a metric introduced by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 2010 that shows the percentage of potential human development loss due to gender inequality and ranges from 0 representing “no lost opportunity” to 1 representing complete opportunity loss. The index was developed to cover the shortcomings of two previously developed indices: Gender Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), both developed in 1995. GII has five indicators that are classified into three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market participation. In general, high Gender Inequality (larger percentage of opportunity loss) correlates with lower human development. In other words, women are most marginalized in low human development countries. Gender Inequality Index (GII) is the highest in Ireland (0.109) and the lowest in Romania (0.311). Turkey has 0.317 score which is lower than EU countries average, but above world average (0.441). In very high human development countries, the GII is 0.170. In high human development countries, it is 0.289. Medium high human development countries it is 0.489. And low human development countries it is 0.586.

The Gender Inequality Index is designed to reveal the extent to which national human development achievements are impaired in terms of gender inequality and provide experimental grounds for policy analysis and advocacy efforts..


gender, gender inequality, gender empowerment