University of agribusiness and rural development, Fiscal policy, globalization and economic growth: sustainable development challenges and perspectives

Font Size: 
Berna Türkekul, Funda Gençler, Gökhan Unakıtan

Last modified: 2020-02-27


The Mediterranean region is always important for the European Union (EU) as historically and geographically. Being aware of this economic and strategic importance of Mediterranean, European Union (EU) has developed a policy including not only the Mediterranean countries but also the East European countries. Attempts have also been made aiming at establishing a European– Mediterranean free trade zone named as The Barcelona process or “Euro-Mediterranean Partnership”. Currently there is duty free access to the EU market for manufactured goods and preferential treatment for exports of agricultural, processed agricultural and fisheries products. The Mediterranean Countries (MC) suppliers of agricultural products to the EU are Turkey, Morocco, Israel and to a lesser extent Egypt and Tunisia. These five countries supplied over 90% of EU agricultural imports from the MCs in the last decade, being Turkey the major origin. Turkey alone accounted for 39 percent. Agriculture trade has an important role in the development of Turkey. However, the trade balance between Turkey and the EU is globally favorable to the EU but negative in the case of the agricultural trade. This deficit has been reduced since 2006, showing increased European agriculture competitiveness. To regain her advantage is extremely important in terms of agricultural trade for Turkey. In particular, the abolition of barriers in agricultural trade represents the biggest challenges for the Euro-Mediterranean partnership. Therefore, this paper aims to present the major challenges for Turkish agricultural sector in the near future. In addition, the main question, which the paper will attempt to answer, is what political and economic measures should be pursued in order to avoid the disadvantages of Euro-Mediterranean Partnership for Turkey. Turkey like the other southern Mediterranean countries specialized in the typical agricultural Mediterranean productions, such as fruit and vegetables, olive oil, textile fibers, tobacco, spices, etc. The analysis of the Euro-Mediterranean imports/exports flows structures showed that agro-food balance of Turkey and other southern Mediterranean countries is characterized by a high deficit. The only country of the region that enjoys self-sufficiency in food is Turkey among and other southern Mediterranean countries. Similarity in its exported agricultural products makes Turkey do compete with the most EU Mediterranean countries, mainly with Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece. For Turkey, the multiplicity of competitive EU member countries make negotiations prospects more complex. The Turkish situation looks rather unique.


EuroMed Partnership, Turkey, agricultural trade.